Linux下快速安装MongoDB

来源:互联网 时间:1970-01-01


    Mongo DB 是目前在IT行业非常流行的一种非关系型数据库(NoSql),其灵活的数据存储方式备受当前IT从业人员的青睐。Mongo DB很好的实现了面向对象的思想(OO思想),在Mongo DB中 每一条记录都是一个Document对象。Mongo DB最大的优势在于所有的数据持久操作都无需开发人员手动编写SQL语句,直接调用方法就可以轻松的实现CRUD操作。本文介绍了如何快速安装mongodb供大家参考。

一、安装配置mongodb
Step 1: 设置系统环境及确保缺省端口27107可用
###当前环境
# cat /etc/issue
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 6.5 (Santiago)

# vi /etc/selinux/config
SELINUX=disabled

Step 2: 下载安装文件
下载地址: https://www.mongodb.org/downloads. 
或者直接在命令提示符下使用curl命令下载
curl -O https://fastdl.mongodb.org/linux/mongodb-linux-x86_64-3.0.6.tgz

Step 3: 解压下载的文件
# pwd
/usr/local/src
# tar -xvf mongodb-linux-x86_64-rhel62-3.0.6.gz  ###注,本文直接从网站下载,所以文件为.gz

Step 4: 复制解压文件到运行目录
# mkdir -p /var/lib/mongodb
# cp -R -n /usr/local/src/mongodb-linux-x86_64-rhel62-3.0.6/. /var/lib/mongodb/

Step 5: 设置环境变量
e.g. export PATH=<mongodb-install-directory>/bin:$PATH
# vi ~/.bash_profile 
export PATH=/var/lib/mongodb/bin:$PATH
# source ~/.bash_profile

Step 6: 创建数据目录
# mkdir -p /data/mongodata

二、启动及验证mongodb
###启动mongo
# mongod --dbpath /data/mongodata

###以下内容为启动后输出的相关信息
2015-10-28T10:03:33.100+0800 I JOURNAL  [initandlisten] journal dir=/data/mongodata/journal
2015-10-28T10:03:33.101+0800 I JOURNAL  [initandlisten] recover : no journal files present, no recovery needed
2015-10-28T10:03:33.264+0800 I JOURNAL  [initandlisten] preallocateIsFaster=true 2.18
2015-10-28T10:03:33.398+0800 I JOURNAL  [durability] Durability thread started
2015-10-28T10:03:33.398+0800 I JOURNAL  [journal writer] Journal writer thread started
2015-10-28T10:03:33.401+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] MongoDB starting : pid=10191 port=27017 dbpath=/data/mongodata 64-bit host=java_2
2015-10-28T10:03:33.401+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] ** WARNING: You are running this process as the root user, which is not recommended.
2015-10-28T10:03:33.401+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] ** WARNING: /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled is 'always'.
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] **        We suggest setting it to 'never'
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] ** WARNING: /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag is 'always'.
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] **        We suggest setting it to 'never'
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] db version v3.0.6
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] git version: 1ef45a23a4c5e3480ac919b28afcba3c615488f2
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] build info: Linux ip-10-67-194-123 2.6.32-220.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Wed Nov 9 08:03:13 EST 2011 x86_64 BOOST_LIB_VERSION=1_49
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] allocator: tcmalloc
2015-10-28T10:03:33.402+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] options: { storage: { dbPath: "/data/mongodata" } }
2015-10-28T10:03:33.404+0800 I INDEX    [initandlisten] allocating new ns file /data/mongodata/local.ns, filling with zeroes...
2015-10-28T10:03:33.491+0800 I STORAGE  [FileAllocator] allocating new datafile /data/mongodata/local.0, filling with zeroes...
2015-10-28T10:03:33.491+0800 I STORAGE  [FileAllocator] creating directory /data/mongodata/_tmp
2015-10-28T10:03:33.497+0800 I STORAGE  [FileAllocator] done allocating datafile /data/mongodata/local.0, size: 64MB,  took 0.001 secs
2015-10-28T10:03:33.511+0800 I NETWORK  [initandlisten] waiting for connections on port 27017

###停止mongo,直接使用ctrl + c
^C2015-10-28T10:09:21.510+0800 I CONTROL  [signalProcessingThread] got signal 2 (Interrupt), will terminate after current cmd ends
2015-10-28T10:09:21.511+0800 I CONTROL  [signalProcessingThread] now exiting
2015-10-28T10:09:21.511+0800 I NETWORK  [signalProcessingThread] shutdown: going to close listening sockets...
2015-10-28T10:09:21.511+0800 I NETWORK  [signalProcessingThread] closing listening socket: 5
2015-10-28T10:09:21.511+0800 I NETWORK  [signalProcessingThread] closing listening socket: 6
2015-10-28T10:09:21.511+0800 I NETWORK  [signalProcessingThread] removing socket file: /tmp/mongodb-27017.sock
2015-10-28T10:09:21.511+0800 I NETWORK  [signalProcessingThread] shutdown: going to flush diaglog...
2015-10-28T10:09:21.511+0800 I NETWORK  [signalProcessingThread] shutdown: going to close sockets...
2015-10-28T10:09:21.512+0800 I STORAGE  [signalProcessingThread] shutdown: waiting for fs preallocator...
2015-10-28T10:09:21.512+0800 I STORAGE  [signalProcessingThread] shutdown: final commit...
2015-10-28T10:09:21.512+0800 I JOURNAL  [signalProcessingThread] journalCleanup...
2015-10-28T10:09:21.512+0800 I JOURNAL  [signalProcessingThread] removeJournalFiles
2015-10-28T10:09:21.515+0800 I JOURNAL  [signalProcessingThread] Terminating durability thread ...
2015-10-28T10:09:21.615+0800 I JOURNAL  [journal writer] Journal writer thread stopped
2015-10-28T10:09:21.615+0800 I JOURNAL  [durability] Durability thread stopped
2015-10-28T10:09:21.615+0800 I STORAGE  [signalProcessingThread] shutdown: closing all files...
2015-10-28T10:09:21.618+0800 I STORAGE  [signalProcessingThread] closeAllFiles() finished
2015-10-28T10:09:21.618+0800 I STORAGE  [signalProcessingThread] shutdown: removing fs lock...
2015-10-28T10:09:21.618+0800 I CONTROL  [signalProcessingThread] dbexit:  rc: 0

###修复启动过程中的两个警告,关于使用root用户启动mongo的警告先忽略
# echo "never" > /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled
# echo "never" > /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag

###再次重启,后置于后台进程,
# mongod --dbpath /data/mongodata &

###查看启动后的进程
# ps -ef|grep mongo |grep -v grep
root     11115 27956  0 10:11 pts/2    00:00:00 mongod --dbpath /data/mongodata
# lsof -i:27017
COMMAND   PID USER   FD   TYPE   DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
mongod  11115 root    5u  IPv4 50567119      0t0  TCP *:27017 (LISTEN)

###使用mongo连接到mongod
# mongo
MongoDB shell version: 3.0.6
connecting to: test
2015-10-28T10:14:30.685+0800 I NETWORK  [initandlisten] connection accepted from 127.0.0.1:53907 #1 (1 connection now open)
Server has startup warnings: 
2015-10-28T10:11:49.217+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] ** WARNING: You are running this process as the root user, which is not recommended.
2015-10-28T10:11:49.217+0800 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] 
> help
        db.help()                    help on db methods
        db.mycoll.help()             help on collection methods
        sh.help()                    sharding helpers
        rs.help()                    replica set helpers
        help admin                   administrative help
        help connect                 connecting to a db help
        help keys                    key shortcuts
        help misc                    misc things to know
        help mr                      mapreduce


        show dbs                     show database names
        show collections             show collections in current database
        show users                   show users in current database
        show profile                 show most recent system.profile entries with time >= 1ms
        show logs                    show the accessible logger names
        show log [name]              prints out the last segment of log in memory, 'global' is default
        use <db_name>                set current database
        db.foo.find()                list objects in collection foo
        db.foo.find( { a : 1 } )     list objects in foo where a == 1
        it                           result of the last line evaluated; use to further iterate
        DBQuery.shellBatchSize = x   set default number of items to display on shell
        exit                         quit the mongo shell
> db.getCollection("version");
test.version
> exit
bye

三、mongodb相关工具
###在安装文件下有README,描述了常用的mongodb相关命令行工具
# more /usr/local/mongodb/README 
MongoDB README
Welcome to MongoDB!
COMPONENTS

  bin/mongod - The database process.
  bin/mongos - Sharding controller.
  bin/mongo  - The database shell (uses interactive javascript).

UTILITIES

  bin/mongodump         - MongoDB dump tool - for backups, snapshots, etc..
  bin/mongorestore      - MongoDB restore a dump
  bin/mongoexport       - Export a single collection to test (JSON, CSV)
  bin/mongoimport       - Import from JSON or CSV
  bin/mongofiles        - Utility for putting and getting files from MongoDB GridFS
  bin/mongostat         - Show performance statistics

RUNNING

  For command line options invoke:

    $ ./mongod --help

  To run a single server database:

    $ mkdir /data/db
    $ ./mongod
    $
    $ # The mongo javascript shell connects to localhost and test database by default:
    $ ./mongo 
    > help

DRIVERS

  Client drivers for most programming languages are available at mongodb.org.  Use the 
  shell ("mongo") for administrative tasks.

###获取单个命令用法
# <command> --help
# mongod --help|more
Options:

General options:
  -h [ --help ]               show this usage information
  --version                   show version information

# mongod --version
db version v3.0.6
git version: 1ef45a23a4c5e3480ac919b28afcba3c615488f2  

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